Thermal insulation is the protection of residential and commercial premises, as well as freezers and heating mains from negative heat exchange with the environment that surrounds. The required level of thermal insulation can be provided by coatings that will greatly reduce the influx of cold air from outside, which can reduce heat loss. These activities are directed to ensure a constant temperature regime, even when the season’s temperature fluctuations come.Thermal resistance determines the efficiency of these materials, which will be maximum for multilayer and highly porous structures. Can be reduced with high-quality and good thermal insulation on the total weight of structures and building materials costs.
Thermal insulation materials can be divided according to their origin into mixed, organic and inorganic. The former can be obtained from mixtures of expanded rocks, asbestos and minerals. Organic materials include waste from the woodworking industry, foam plastic, peat, and agricultural waste. They have low water resistance, so they can decompose and are used infrequently. Inorganic materials are fiberglass, mineral wool, foam glass, cellular concrete, vermiculite, honeycomb plastics, expanded perlite. These substances are fragile and can absorb moisture perfectly, therefore, special installation methods can cause. It is these materials that are used for insulation of walls, floors, facades, roofs, etc.D.
Heat insulation can be either preventing thermal losses and reflecting thermal radiation due to the conduction and convective heat transfer.
Materials for thermal insulation can also be divided into four main groups – glass and mineral wool, and products that can be obtained on their basis, missed mineral and cork materials, as well as gas -filled plastics. Let’s look at a little more than each of them.
Glass cotton wool in production technology is very similar to mineral. But it has fibers thicker and long, and therefore products have elasticity and increased strength, as well as vibration resistance. This material is very often offered in compressed rolls, however, after opening, they can quickly restore their original appearance.
Mineral wool is produced from the mineral melt, which is pre -crushed and pulled into the thread. Mineral wool by the genus of raw materials can be stone and slag. The first is obtained from rocks, and the second – from slags of non -ferrous and ferrous metallurgy. The advantages of mineral wool are chemical resistance, ease of sound insulation installation, as well as hygroscopicity. The material is used for the facade system, for insulation of floors and walls, as the base of roofs, as well as with layered masonry.
Allocated and cork substances are perlite, cellular glass, aerated concrete, gas mushroom and other materials that have high strength, their waterjack is completely absent and non -combustible. They are usually used for insulation of roofs, floors, walls and foundations.
Foam and gas -filled plastics are organic high -porous materials. They are based on synthetic resins, which are semi-rigid, rigid and elastic. They have high heat and sound insulation properties and low density. However, with good properties, foam is also characterized by negative characteristics: low fire resistance and heat resistance, and they also age quickly.